Use: To determine urinary infection. A single culture is about 80% accurate in the female; two containing the same organism with a count of 105 or more represent 95% chance of true bacteriuria; three such specimens mean virtual certainty of true bacteriuria. Urinary tract infection is significantly higher in women who use diaphragm-spermicide contraception, perhaps secondary to increased vaginal pH and a higher frequency of vaginal colonization with E coli.1 A single clean voided specimen from an adult male may be considered diagnostic with proper preparation and care in specimen collection. If the patient is receiving antimicrobial therapy at the time the specimen is collected, any level of bacteriuria may be significant. When more than two organisms are recovered, the likelihood of contamination is high; thus, the significance of definitive identification of the organisms and susceptibility testing in this situation is severely limited. A repeat culture with proper specimen collection including patient preparation is often indicated. Periodic evaluation of diabetics and pregnant women for asymptomatic bacteriuria has been recommended.2 Institutionalized patients, especially elderly individuals, are prone to urinary tract infections, which can be severe.3 Cultures of specimens from Foley catheters yielding multiple organisms with high colony counts usually represents colonization of the catheter and not true significant bacteriuria. Most laboratories limit the number of organisms that will be identified when recovered from urine to two. Similarly, most do not routinely perform susceptibility tests on isolates from presumably contaminated specimens. Failure to recover aerobic organisms from patients with pyuria or positive Gram stains of urinary sediment may indicate the presence of mycobacteria or anaerobes.